携手同行,共创辉煌!
行业热点
当前位置:首页 > 业务交流 > 行业热点

美国疾控中心:新冠病毒通过饮用水、娱乐用水和污水传播的几点解答

Water Transmission and COVID-19
Drinking Water, Recreational Water and Wastewater: What You Need to Know
  随着新冠疫情在海外的大规模爆发,海外对新冠病毒的研究逐渐深入。继美国环保总署(EPA)发布关于饮用水和污水中的新冠病毒的解答后(疫情跟踪 | 美国EPA:就饮用水和污水中的新冠病毒对公众的权威解答),美国疾控中心(CDC)下属的国家免疫与呼吸系统疾病中心(NCIRD)近日也针对民众关切的饮用水、娱乐用水和污水中新冠病毒的传播风险进行了解答。CDC的大体看法和EPA类似,即:新冠病毒通过饮用水、粪-口、排水系统传播的可能性低且尚无明确证据支撑其可能性,但仍建议污水处理相关工作人员做好防护,避免直接接触未处理的污水。
  原文来自:https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/water.html
新冠病毒通过饮用水、娱乐用水和污水传播的几点解答
  Q: Can the COVID-19 virus spread through drinking water?
  导致新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的新冠病毒是否能通过饮用水传播?
  A: The COVID-19 virus has not been detected in drinking water. Conventional water treatment methods that use filtration and disinfection, such as those in most municipal drinking water systems, should remove or inactivate the virus that causes COVID-19.
  尚未在饮用水中检测到导致新冠肺炎的新冠病毒。大多数市政自来水厂的饮用水处理系统的常规工艺中都包含了过滤和消毒模块,可以去除或灭活该病毒。
  Q: Is the COVID-19 virus found in feces?
  粪便中是否发现了导致新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的新冠病毒?
  A: The virus that causes COVID-19 has been detected in the feces of some patients diagnosed with COVID-19. The amount of virus released from the body (shed) in stool, how long the virus is shed, and whether the virus in stool is infectious are not known.
  The risk of transmission of COVID-19 from the feces of an infected person is also unknown. However, the risk is expected to be low based on data from previous outbreaks of related coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). There have been no reports of fecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 to date.
  确实,我们在一些确诊为新冠肺炎的患者的粪便中检测到了导致致病的新冠病毒。粪便中含有多少数量的病毒,能够从粪便中扩散多久,以及粪便中的病毒是否具有传染性尚不清楚。
  通过粪-口途径感染COVID-19的风险目前也是未知的。然而,根据以往爆发过的冠状病毒疫情(如严重急性呼吸道综合征和中东呼吸综合征)的资料来看,预计该风险较低。迄今为止,也没有关于发现通过粪-口传播途径感染新冠肺炎的案例。
  Q: Can the COVID-19 virus spread through pools and hot tubs?
  导致新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的新冠病毒能否通过水池和热水浴缸传播?
  A: There is no evidence that COVID-19 can be spread to humans through the use of pools and hot tubs. Proper operation, maintenance, and disinfection (e.g., with chlorine and bromine) of pools and hot tubs should remove or inactivate the virus that causes COVID-19.
  没有证据表明,人们在使用水池和热水浴缸时会引发新冠病毒的感染。对泳池和热水浴缸进行正确的操作、维护和消毒(例如,用氯和溴),可以去除或灭活新冠病毒。
  Q: Can the COVID-19 virus spread through sewerage systems?
  导致新冠肺炎(COVID-19)的新冠病毒能否通过下水道系统传播?
  A: CDC is reviewing all data on COVID-19 transmission as information becomes available. At this time, the risk of transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19 through sewerage systems is thought to be low. Although transmission of COVID-19 through sewage may be possible, there is no evidence to date that this has occurred. This guidance will be updated as necessary as new evidence is assessed.
  SARS, a similar coronavirus, has been detected in untreated sewage for up to 2 to 14 days. In the 2003 SARS outbreak, there was documented transmission associated with sewage aerosols. Data suggest that standard municipal wastewater system chlorination practices may be sufficient to inactivate coronaviruses, as long as utilities monitor free available chlorine during treatment to ensure it has not been depleted.
  Wastewater and sewage workers should use standard practices, practice basic hygiene precautions, and wear personal protective equipment (PPE) as prescribed for current work tasks.
  美国疾病控制和预防中心(CDC)正在查阅所有关于新冠肺炎病毒传播的案例资料。目前,病毒通过下水道系统进行传播的风险被认为是很低的。虽然新冠病毒通过污水传播具有可能性,但迄今为止并没有证据表明发生过这类情况。如果能够得到(可以证实病毒可以通过下水道传播)新的证据,我们将在相应的指南中更新这一情况。
  SARS病毒是一种类似的冠状病毒,在未经处理的污水中曾被检测到可以存活2~14天。2003年,当SARS疫情爆发时,曾有研究记录显示SARS病毒的传播与污水气溶胶有关。但同时游离氯的监测数据资料也显示,只要污水中还存在游离氯,城市污水系统的氯化消毒工艺可能足以灭活冠状病毒。 
  涉及污水处理的工作人员应按照规定使用标准操作规程,执行基本卫生防护措施,并穿戴个人防护装备(PPE)才可以开展相关的工作任务。
  Q: Should wastewater workers take extra precautions to protect themselves from the COVID-19 virus?
  污水处理的工作人员是否应该采取额外的预防措施来保护自己免受新冠病毒的感染?
  A: Wastewater treatment plant operations should ensure workers follow routine practices to prevent exposure to wastewater. These include using engineering and administrative controls, safe work practices, and PPE normally required for work tasks when handling untreated wastewater. No additional COVID-19–specific protections are recommended for employees involved in wastewater management operations, including those at wastewater treatment facilities.
  污水处理厂应确保工作人员遵循标准规范的操作要求以防止直接接触污水。其中包括使用工程管理和行政管理的手段、安全的工作方法,并要求可能与未处理的污水接触的工作人员穿戴好个人防护装备(PPE)。对于管理岗位的工作人员,包括设施设备管理的人员,不需要进行额外的专用保护。
  最新评论:2020年3月10日
  内容来源:美国国家免疫与呼吸系统疾病中心(NCIRD),病毒性疾病学部
  来源:净水技术  翻译:《净水技术》王佳、阮辰旼